Pune (Marathi: [puɳe] (listen); English: ; also known as Poona, the official name until 1978) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra, with an estimated population of 7.4 million as of 2020. It has been ranked "the most liveable city in India" several times. Along with the municipal corporation area of PCMC, PMC and the three cantonment towns of Camp, Khadki, and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR).According to the 2011 census, the urban area had a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region was estimated to be 7.4 million. Situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau, on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of the Pune district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire, and one of the most important political centres in the Indian subcontinent. The city was previously also ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate, the Mughals and the Adil Shahi dynasty. Historical landmarks include the Lal Mahal, the Kasba Ganapati temple and Shaniwar Wada. Major historical events involving the city include the Mughal–Maratha Wars and the Anglo-Maratha Wars. Pune is widely regarded to be the second major IT hub and the most important automobile and manufacturing hub in India. It is also known as the 'Oxford of the East' given the presence of a wide range of educational institutions.